HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Sat, 05 Dec 2020 15:38:29 GMT 4338X

房产中介整合加速 传统中介和互联网平台抢市场

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 北京金融科技产业园落户通州运河商务区 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

详谈瓷砖美缝未来发展趋势及走势

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Adriana Lima sizzled in red, while Alessandra Ambrosio looked amazing just months after giving birth.
We were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way
教育部在一场新闻发布会上表示,全球大多数的留学生都是来自中国。
"How many patients do Chinese doctors see a day? It can be more than 50," he told China Daily. "How can we have the time and energy to do research or publish papers?"
Cousins's deal qualifies as a blockbuster, the Raptors made two strong moves to bolster their contender status, and the race for the West's last playoff spot got far more intriguing, among other storylines.
5月30日,日本南部海岸附近发生了强烈地震,使中国民众担心,继2011年后,类似海啸和福岛核电站熔融的大灾难会再次发生。不过,最后并没有出现人员死亡或重大损毁的报道。
According to the institution, only women with a net worth exceeding 8 billion yuan are eligible to be selected as one of the top 50 richest women in China.

“…said he never lets people see him sweat — but he was sweating profusely.”
Unfortunately, there won't be a 2014 rematch between Brazil and Uruguay, as the latter was eliminated on Saturday. If Brazil makes it to the final on July 13, the country could play Mexico, the Netherlands, Costa Rica, Greece, USA, Belgium, Argentina or Switzerland.
谁都记得几个月前,哈里王子因为媒体对其女友梅格汉·马克尔的猜测而发表了出人意料的公报。
节目4 小品《我要上春晚》,周炜 刘大成 石头 张尧等
余秀华

Footnotes

  • 楼市反弹难以持续 明年下半年预期转折
  • 当新员工迈入QuikTrip位于塔尔萨的总部时,他们可没功夫去害羞:刚开始的几天,他们的办公桌上都摆着满满一大桶糖果。路过的同事常常停下来做自我介绍,顺手也抓块糖吃。

The Microsoft founder's net worth is $86 billion, up from $75 billion last year.
上周二,Snapchat推出了一种名为Discover的服务,Vice、CNN和《人物》杂志等媒体可通过它在Snapchat发布视频内容。已经有几个频道推出广告服务,要价可不便宜。据《广告周刊》报道,Snapchat的广告标价是每天75万美元。
The Harvard article suggests that protecting the brain with a heart-healthy diet could be the key to warding off dementia and keeping your memory intact well into your golden years. Some studies have suggested certain foods have a positive impact on memory, but no study thus far has revealed the existence of a miracle food. The idea that a heart-healthy diet could also prove beneficial to the brain and memory has become popular with doctors studying Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Some of the risk factors associated with heart disease are similar to those associated with dementia and Alzheimer's. Foods recommended for a heart-healthy diet include fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain bread, as well as beans, nuts, and olive oil. If you can't use every one of these 10 scientific secrets to a perfect memory, a healthy diet might help you avoid losing it!
它有力地提醒我们,性革命、女性进入职场、消费主义的盛行以及太空时代都有阴暗的一面,有些人在其中受到了伤害。这是该剧具有强大影响力的一个原因。
中国进口下降在很大程度上源于大宗商品价格走低,而后者反过来又是中国总体需求下降的结果。中国已经多年是铁矿石、煤炭、铜等材料的世界最大消费国。
单词succumb 联想记忆:

家居卖场引进百货商业 是权宜之计还是各取所需?

References

View Abstract