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涂料业产品结构将沿着三大趋势进行调整

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 新疆伊宁建材企业陷入低谷 协会引导自律 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

北京市社保中心: 13类困难人群保费全额补贴

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

美国全国地产经纪商协会(National Association of Realtors)的数据显示,自去年7月份以来美国成屋销量每月都在下滑。这和美国借贷成本上升是同步的。由于美联储暗示将缩减购债计划的规模,整个经济的借贷成本不断上升。
With the release of his book Conscious Capitalism, Whole Foods (WFM, Fortune 500) CEO John Mackey got business leaders thinking about a compelling idea: Companies work best when they create value for all their stakeholders -- not just investors. According to Mackey, key stakeholders include customers, employees, suppliers, society, and the environment. Highlighting companies like Costco, Southwest Airlines (LUV,Fortune 500), and Google (GOOG, Fortune 500), Mackey demonstrates that thinking about more than just the bottom line builds stronger and more efficient businesses.
近两年P2P贷款行业迅速发展。根据E-Lending House,截至6月底,该行业未清偿贷款达2090亿元人民币。
5.品牌推广:增长了16.4%
WORST USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA
?在纽约的交通基础设施遭受巨大的打击。许多城市的地铁隧道被淹没。
或许你会认为这个60%并不起眼,但它是很重要的一步,因为在2003年,同性婚姻在美国的任何地方都是不合法的。

10.你真的很明显,好吧?
In the field of the best 85 business schools in Europe, HEC Paris remains in second place behind LBS, while Insead, the international school based in Fontainebleau, France, climbs two places to third.
"It sounds like Harvard is intruding too deeply into the private lives of students," said Dershowitz, who has represented a series of high-profile clients, including OJ Simpson.
据中国的官方媒体报道,2017年中国电影票房收入增长了13.5%,而今年仅略有下降。
不过,时间不等人,特朗普总统也正通过威胁退出谈判而极力增添一些戏剧性的紧张感。

Footnotes

  • 电商并非“黄金地” LED企业做好取舍是关键
  • 单词slew 联想记忆:

Hillary stays on: Clinton’s CV is chock full of firsts: The only first lady to become a U.S. senator turned viable presidential candidate turned secretary of state. Now a private citizen, she continues to be one of the most watched and listened-to women on the planet. All bets on that she will be the 2016 Democratic presidential candidate and the free world’s presumptive next leader. She’s done little to quiet the chatter, including hitting the speaking circuit last month at an estimated $200,000 fee per event and inking a reported $14 million book deal.
……被要求向面试官简单介绍自己,结果她没有什么可说的。
Before becoming Germany's top trading partner, China was Germany's largest trading market in Asia. Germany has been China's top trading partner in the European Union for the last 2 years.
In comments reported by state news agency Xinhua on Thursday from a speech given at a meeting of regional leaders in Cambodia on Wednesday, Mr Li said the Chinese economy had performed above expectations in 2017 as trade reversed two years of declines.
"This film was about survival, adaptation and the triumph of the human spirit and more importantly it was about trust.”
要向依法依规的市场主体发出“前行、前行、再前行”的信号;向依靠劳动创业创新者亮起“可以、可以、再可以”的绿灯;对那些违法违规不良行为,就要及时亮出黄牌,甚至出红牌罚他下场。

9月房价或跌回一年前 成交量四季度或触底

References

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