Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 建材行业正在加速筑底 基建项目审批提速.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
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Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
屋内的公共区域包括了两间起居室，室内有几面玻璃墙，可通往一处露台和一座入地式游泳池。房屋中天花板的高度为28英尺（约8.5米）；所有房门都是用西班牙雪松木做的。厨房里的不锈钢电器包括一台斐雪派克(Fisher & Paykel)的炉灶和两台Sub-Zero的冰箱，还有不锈钢的橱柜和水槽。厨房与进餐区之间由一个早餐吧台分开，这间餐厅也通往露台和游泳池。
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In a televised debate on Monday night, Mr Wilders called on the Netherlands to expel the Turkish ambassador.
The study is available online.