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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

故事背景设定于《星球大战3:西斯的复仇》和《星球大战4:新希望》之间,起义军盗取死星设计图,将很有可能成为被重金追杀的对象。对于电影详细情节,我们也不是很清楚。

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这张专辑中十分突出的一首歌《Him》(《他》)以低调的方式讲述了一个有关同性恋和文化偏执的催人泪下的故事,是一首倡导非异性恋者公民权的歌曲。
Other top ten foreign pictures were Transformers: The Last Knight, Dangal, Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales, and Kong: Skull Island.
影片直接来自真实的Bling Ring帮,2008年,他们10个月的赃物飚升了300万美元。电影列出的所有名人都是这个团伙真实的受害者。团伙成员声称,是社会对这些名人私生活的痴迷鼓励了他们。无论动机如何,《炫富帮》都很好地提醒了人们,要时不时与媒体拉开距离。

Variety Talk Series: “Last Week Tonight With John Oliver” (HBO)
However, Baty said the stabilization of Chinese universities' rankings is no cause for alarm. "Continued investment built on decades of spending, and increased internationalization in Chinese higher education will no doubt ensure China's universities continue to strengthen," he said.
Dachis says: Kraft took a stance in support of genetically engineered foods midway through the year and the decision turned their brand into an overall loser for 2012.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

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就在整场比赛即将结束时,荷兰队射入一球再次追平比分,双方进入加时赛。最终中国队射入第三球,赢得2013年机器人世界杯足球比赛冠军。
在即将结束的2014年,标普500指数再次实现亮眼增长,而那些本欲跑赢该指数的基金经理们,表现则没那么出色。Lipper公司称,截止11月底,85%的活跃股票型共同基金经理业绩低于标普500指数。而在正常的年份里,跑赢该指数的基金经理比例是今年的两倍,也就是说,通常只有约三分之二的基金表现不如标普500指数。Lipper公司称,这是30年来活跃基金经理相对大盘表现最差的一年。
007电影中,反派人物往往没有自己的主题曲,但是《金枪人》中克里斯多弗·李扮演的暗杀者出场时有一段轻快动人的绝妙曲调,衬托出暗杀者如地狱使者般帅气冷酷。LuLu的演唱完全演绎出这个反派斯卡拉孟加的过人之处。即使这首歌在今天来说欢快得有点可笑,但这也增添了它的魅力。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

“I’m 17 – I want to be with my family and friends and school,” he said. “I’m going to be in London for the foreseeable future.”
Professor Kaufmann and a colleague, Gareth Harris, found that white Britons who lived in areas that are rapidly diversifying became more likely to vote for the right-wing British National Party. Daniel Hopkins, a professor of political science at the University of Pennsylvania, found a similar pattern of ethnic change leading to anti-immigrant politics in the United States.
The January-to-November period in the United States this year was the warmest first 11 months of any year on record for the contiguous states. And 2012 will likely surpass 1998 as the warmest year on record for the nation, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
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  • 京东家居事业部出海 能否扛起另一半天?
  • When scientists discover how to shrink humans to five inches tall as a solution to overpopulation, Paul (Matt Damon) and his wife Audrey (Kristen Wiig) decide to abandon their stressed lives in order to get small and move to a new downsized community, a choice that triggers life-changing adventures.
  • 电子商务大势所趋 体验式营销将打破卖场体验专利
  • 那些做大家居的企业还好吗?
  • Vocal event of the year: "The Only Way I Know," Eric Church, Luke Bryan and Jason Aldean
    授完奖,在他致谢他的粉丝和MTV之前,他兴奋地说到”首先,我想说我不确定我怎么能得到这个奖,因为我已经好几年没有出过唱片了,但是我得奖了。”另外,Kendrick Lamar获得了最佳录影带奖,尽管这位说唱歌手无法到场,而是他通过视频感谢了他的粉丝。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the “夹缝”中的中国家居建材行业, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

天猫网购家具甲醛超标 依新《消法》成功退货

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

哈尔滨一温泉酒店发生火灾 已初步确定18人死亡

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 4.平均寿命
    Cousins's deal qualifies as a blockbuster, the Raptors made two strong moves to bolster their contender status, and the race for the West's last playoff spot got far more intriguing, among other storylines.
  • Where Goods Made From Trafficked Wildlife Go
    In the season of joy I present my sincere wishes and kind thoughts. May the kind of New Year outshine all the rest.
    2.Rocky
    当前油价正在发生什么变化?在业内人士和严肃的投资者中间,对这个问题有两种不同的看法。2016年油价走势或许有助我们看清哪种观点是正确的。
    埃玛·莫拉诺(Emma Morano)

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 切实降低企业社保缴费负担 李克强严令政府要说到做到
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 数百货车“受阻”中国家具城 不加盟不让进场拉货

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

19. Going, Going, Almost Gone Quentin Tarantino shot his latest, “The Hateful Eight,” in 70 millimeter, and the film is slated to play in almost 100 theaters that, like most of rooms across the country, now usually use digital projection. Whatever you think of Mr. Tarantino, try to catch “The Hateful Eight” on film so you can see for yourself how the industry-enforced switch to digital has radically changed movies.
The regulator said that “faced with a complex and volatile market environment,” funds had realised gains of only Rmb294.5bn in the first half, a drop of 42.3 per cent.
"I want to tell you what happened I opened the envelope and it said Emma Stone, La La Land and that is why I took such a long look at Faye and at you. I wasn't trying to be funny. This is Moonlight for best picture," Beatty told the shocked crowd as he explained the blunder.
创业者都是行动者和颠覆者。他们不能去分析每一个细节,否则他们将寸步难行。初创公司没有拖延的资本。创业是一个全天候、无休假的职业,创业者必须具备持久不变的前进动力。迈出每一步的时候进行简单的评估,然后继续前进。相信自己的直觉。
Tom Hanks and Meryl Streep in front of the camera, with Steven Spielberg directing a historic battle over press freedom - there's much for awards voters to admire.
卓越雇主排名:68
会是除巴西、德国和西班牙之外的国家捧得大力神杯吗?

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • n. 分开,抽印本
  • 2015年房地产行业4大数据影响防水行业
  • "Nobody can stop it. I will keep sending leaflets into North Korea at the risk of my life," Park said, adding he has always prepared to face down the North's threats.
    李说,今年有好几个服务于老龄化人口金融和医疗需求的工作挤进了前10名,包括听力矫治专家、理财规划师和理疗师。
  • 11月楼市成交创年内新高:但房价仍处下降通道
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 事发时,Lecent正与其他年轻人一起在Finch大道,Martin Grove路附近的一家酒吧,她被一颗子弹击中,抢救无效死亡。
    TV soaps regularly top the TV ratings but the highest trending show of 2012 was the BBC kids' show 'Mike The Knight' that beat US terror drama 'Homeland' and 'Towie.'
  • 拉娜·德雷《渴望生活》
    就目前而言,虽然偶尔出现一些高价交易(比如大新金融中心、以21亿港元售出的太平山顶豪宅),但整个行业弥漫着广泛的悲观情绪。世邦魏理仕数据显示,今年第一季度房地产业最活跃的部分是写字楼,但交易总量也不过8笔。
  • 谷歌英国的搜索结果分为热门趋势搜索榜和搜索次数排行榜。
    4. Statistician
  • 苹果(Apple)正面临着市值跳水的窘境,苹果股价从去年9月至今已下跌了35%。众多卖方分析师纷纷献计献策,现在甚至有人建议苹果推出廉价iPhone。摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)公司的凯蒂?休伯蒂对中国这一全球最大的智能手机市场进行了分析,并给大家算了一笔账。
    电商巨头阿里巴巴集团创始人、董事局主席马云连续第三年成为我国"IT首富"。
    The 8 per cent year-on-year drop in profits last month compares with 4.2 per cent in November and is the biggest since the current data series began in late 2011, figures released on Tuesday showed.
  • 在《醉乡民谣》(Inside Llewyn Davis)中,编剧兼导演乔尔?科恩(Joel Coen)和伊桑?科恩(Ethan Coen)兄弟俩挥之不去的忧伤情绪转化成了令人难忘的戏剧性场面。我觉得我的评论本应澄清,这部关于流行文化牺牲品的悲歌有一种特别的味道;其中一些部分相当阴郁。奥斯卡?伊萨克(Oscar Isaac)在片中出演一位自暴自弃的民谣乐手,宿命般地献身于他的艺术,他的卓越表演令这部影片极其震撼人心。
    Vocal duo: Thompson Square
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 人民日报评论员:美国不应将世界经济拖入“衰退陷阱” shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

海口巡查房地产市场 13人被限5年内不得在海南买房

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

欠款数十万 却将价值百余万房屋“卖”80万 法院: 不许!

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

太原南站暑运发送量创新高 高铁成民众暑期出游首选

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

摇号后,父母投靠子女落户现象增多

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • The 25 most common passwords have been released by Splashdata which makes password management applications.
  • In this Jan. 7, 1997, file photo, Steve Jobs, chief executive of Pixar, speaks at the MacWorld trade show in San Francisco.
  • 违约拖欠中小企业款项登记平台上线试运行

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 温斯顿?丘吉尔(加里?奥德曼饰)刚刚上任英国首相,就面临着一个他生命中最关键的抉择:暗流涌动,是与纳粹德国和谈,还是依旧保持坚定立场,为了国家的理想、自由而战斗。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Now a white-haired grandfather, Belmonte has never regretted missing the 1950 match, particularly since his mother died just a few days later. "I decided not to go, and it was a good decision," he told the reporters.
    Other Chinese companies that filed a large number of patents included ZTE, Alibaba, Xiaomi, BYD and Haier, all of which are rapidly expanding into Europe.
    3.50 First Dates
  • If a sitcom that lasts for 10 years is considered popular, then surely one that still stirs up emotions after 20 must be considered a classic. Friends first aired in the US in 1994, featuring a cast of six young men and women in New York. In the time since, it’s become one of the most famous titles in the sitcom genre, aired in over 100 countries and regions in the world.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • adj. 平的,与飞机有关的
  • 5月香港楼宇买卖注册量逾1万宗 创近7年以来按月新高
  • 一有机会就炫一下小卷毛。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 中国建材斩获欧洲单体最大电站 总金额达2亿欧元
  • Household substance abuse
  • 连天红雷人营销改写红木家具行情
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

降低毛利率助卫浴企业开辟农村市场

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 雷士照明逾5亿元遭提取或冻结 现任董事会毫不知情
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 周学军:明年仍是LED产业痛苦期 替换潮3年达顶峰
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

大银行已经或多或少地放弃了用高薪留住人才的尝试。自金融危机以来,有一件事很清楚:如果你想暴富,就得去硅谷。露丝波拉特(Ruth Porat)在2015年树立了一个标杆,她放弃了摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)首席财务官约1300万美元的年薪,跳槽谷歌(如今的Alphabet)获得五倍于此的薪酬。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

adj. 暴露的,无掩蔽的,暴露于风雨中的 v. 暴露,
Two years ago, the AFI delayed voting on its year-end list to give critics a chance to see Star Wars: The Force Awakens, which it subsequently included on its list of the 10 best films of 2015. However, this year, the latest Star Wars film, The Last Jedi, which hits theaters on Dec. 15, was nowhere to be found on AFI's list.
2018年它们会拿出更多创造力,包括在非现金效益上的创造力。例如,美国银行(Bank of America)刚刚引入了一项新计划,让全球银行业务和市场部门的员工休至多6周的长假。该计划是有条件的:员工必须在该行工作至少10年,每5年可以申请一次长假,最多享受3次。但根据英国《金融时报》看到的一份内部备忘录,首席运营官汤姆蒙塔格(Tom Montag)鼓励符合条件的员工考虑该计划。
The average value of the household appliance sector soared 74 percent, showing the biggest increase among top 10 sectors. E-commerce and retail followed, with their value up 69 percent. The medical health care sector climbed up 32 percent. The financial service sector increased 18 percent and the alcohol sector rose 17 percent. Real estate gained 15 percent and food and drinks were up 11 percent.
Mini-Series or Movie: “The People v. O. J. Simpson: American Crime Story” (FX)
In that meeting, he told Jacobs that such problems would decrease, as China is reforming its management system in science and technology, according to a statement by the association on Friday.
《财富》美国500强公司苹果(Apple))已宣布,将从现金中拿出300亿美元用于股票回购。这个消息让投资者很高兴:股价暴涨,甚至在消息发布一周后,这只股票相对于标准普尔指数在这7天上涨了12%。苹果有一项规模更大、总额高达1300亿美元的资本回报计划,将一直延续到2015年,而这些回购就是这项计划的一部分。
迅速崛起的“色情短信”服务商Snapchat与早期的社交媒体巨头Facebook具有令人不可思议的相似性。我们现在都知道扎克伯格早早就投下的赌注获得了多大的成功(更不必说他还彻底击败了卑劣的文克莱沃斯孪生兄弟)。那么,Snapchat能否拥有同样光明的未来?
China accounts for about 15 per cent of the world’s gold production, a higher proportion than Saudi Arabia has in the oil market. But since 2016 authorities have tightened their scrutiny on gold mining, which has led to the closure of smaller mines in the country.
麦肯锡将于3月宣布当选者,预计此人将对麦肯锡的发展方向产生重大影响。一些内部人士倾向于那些在快速增长领域(比如数据分析)具备专长的候选人,而其他人想要一位可以维护公司品牌的传统主义者。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

11月份百城新建住宅均价涨幅回落 三四线城市收窄幅度最显着

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • In the 1990s, Roth applied it to the market for allocating US student doctors to hospitals. He developed a new algorithm that was adopted by the National Resident Matching Program, which helps match resident doctors with the right hospitals.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 佳士得珠宝部门的国际高级鉴定师吉恩马克·鲁纳尔称:“这颗钻石完美无瑕,从内到外都绝对纯净。”
  • 2015年楼市预测:限购全面退出 40%房企遭淘汰
  • 亲爱的朋友,你们即将毕业,呈现在你面前的世界拥有美好的前景和潜力;这个世界并不仅仅以办公室走廊或华尔街的形式出现,而是令人激动不已的真实世界,充满许多未解之谜,以及让人陶醉的体验。我们当中许多人都忽略了这个简单的真理。
  • 下半年 北京二手房价不会出现大震荡
  • 依然年轻

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 家居市场景气指数现三连涨
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • MINNEAPOLIS
  • 1.《廷巴克图》,导演:阿伯德拉马纳·希萨柯(Abderrahmane Sissako)。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

5月全国楼市成交创新高 一线城市涨幅明显

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